• Elaborate Course: Systematic Anatomy

Elaborate Course: Systematic Anatomy
精品课程:系统解剖学


I. Course Introduction (including teaching goals and requirements) :
Human Anatomy is the science of the structure and function of the human body and relations of its various parts. Anatomical knowledge remains one of the cornerstones of modern medical practice. The Systematic Anatomy course (Human Anatomy, course 4102101) is organized around a systemic approach to anatomy which describes the major systems of the body – musculoskeletal, digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, cardiovascular, lymphatic, nervous, and endocrine. The main task of this subject is that students will know the shapes and structures, the arrangements and relationships, the law of development and basic function of the organs in human body. And they will be able to use anatomic knowledge in solving clinical practice related problems.


II. Teaching Syllabus (including the content of chapters and sections. A sheet can be attached):
Introduction  1h
1. Various Parts, Organs and Systems of Human Body
2. Anatomical Position
3. Terms of Direction
4. Anatomical Axes and Planes of Human Body
SectionⅠ Locomotor System
Chapter 1  Osteology  18h
§1  General Description
1. Classification of bones
2. Bone markings
3. Structure of bone
4. Chemical composition and physical properties of bones
5. Bone growth
6. Functions of skeletal system
§2  Axial Skeleton
1.  Bones of trunk
2.  Bones of skull
3.  General features of skull
§3  Appendicular Skeleton
1.  Bones of upper limb
2.  Bones of lower limb
Chapter 2  Arthrology 7h
§1  General Description
1.  Classification of joints
1) Fibrous joints
2) Cartilaginous joints
3) Synovial joints
2.  Synovial Joints
1) Basic structures of a synovial joint
2) Accessory structures of a synovial joint
3) Kinds of synovial joints
4) Movements at synovial joints
§2  Specific Joints of the Body
1.  Joints of skull
2.  Joints of thoracic skeleton
3.  Articulations of vertebral column
4.  Joints of upper limb
5.  Joints of lower limb
Chapter 3  Myology 13h
§1  Introduction
1. Muscle attachments
2. Associated connective tissue
3. Supplementary structures of muscles
4. Muscle groups
5. Muscle architecture
6. Blood and nerve supply of skeletal muscle
7. Nomenclature of skeletal muscles
§2  Muscles of Head
1. Facial muscles
2. Muscles of mastication
§3  Muscles of Neck
1. Superficial group
2. Suprahyoid muscles
3. Infrahyoid muscles
4. Deep cervical muscles
§4  Muscles of Trunk
1. Muscles of back
2. Muscles of thorax
3. Diaphragm
4. Muscles of abdomen
§5  Muscles of Upper Limb
1. Muscles of shoulder (Pectoral girdle)
2. Muscles of arm
3. Muscles of forearm
4. Muscles of hand
§6  Muscles of Lower Limb
1. Muscles of hip (Pelvic girdle)
2. Muscles of thigh
3. Muscles of leg
4. Muscles of foot
Section 2 Splanchnology
Chapter 4  General Description of Splanchnology 1h
§1  General Structures of Viscera
1. Hollow organ
2. Parenchymatous organ
§2  Reference Lines of Thorax and Abdominal Region
1. Common used reference lines of the thorax
2. Abdominal regions
Chapter 5  Alimentary System 12h
§1  Oral Cavity
1. Lips
2. Cheeks
3. Palate
4. Teeth
5. Tongue (Lingua)
6. Salivary glands
§2.  Pharynx
1. Location and shape of pharyx
2. Division of pharynx
3. Communication of pharynx
4. Lymphatic ring
§3  Esophagus
1. Location and divisions
2. Esophageal constrictions
§4   Stomach
1. Appearance and divisions of stomach
2. Structure of stomach wall
3. Position of stomach
§5  Small Intestine
1. Duodenum
2. Jejunum and ileum
§6 Large Intestine
1. Cecum
2. Vermiform appendix
3. Colon
4. Rectum
5. Anal canal
§7  Liver
1. Appearance of liver
2. Position and relation of liver
3. Lobes and segmentation of liver
4. External biliary tracts of liver
§8  Pancreas
1. Position and relation of pancreas
2. Divisions of pancreas
3. Pancreatic duct
4. Functions of pancreas
Chapter 6   Respiratory System 6h
§1  Nose
1. External nose
2. Nasal cavity
3. Paranasal sinuses
§2  Larynx
1. Layngeal cartilages
2. Conjunction of larynx
3. Laryngeal muscles
4. Laryngeal cavity
§3  Trachea and bronchi
1. Trachea
2. Bronchi
§4  Lungs
1. External features of the lungs
2. Bronchial tree
3. Bronchopulmonary segments
4. Blood supply of bronchus and pulmonary segment
§5  Pleura
1. Parietal pleura
2. Visceral pleura
3. Pleural cavity
4. Pleural recesses
5. Projection of pleura and lung
§6  Mediastinum
1. Superior mediastinum
2. Inferior mediastinum
Chapter 7   Urinary System  3.5h
Introduction
§1  Kidneys
1. Appearance of kidneys
2. Position and adjacent of kidneys
3. Capsules of kidney
4. Structure of kidney
5. Renal segmental blood vessel and renal segments
6. Malformation and abnormality of kidney
§2  Ureters
1. Divisions and course of ureter
1) Abdominal part of ureter
2) Pelvic part of ureter
3) Intramural part of ureter
2.  Constrictions of ureter
§3  Urinary Bladder
1. Shape of urinary bladder
2. Inner surface of urinary bladder
3. Position and adjacent of urinary bladder
§4  Urethra
Chapter 8   Male Reproductive System 3.5h
§1  Internal Reproductive Organs
1. Testes
2. System ducts of male reproductive system
3. Accessory reproductive glands
§2  External Reproductive Organs
1. Scrotum
2. Penis
§3  Male urethra
Chapter 9   Female Reproductive Organs 4h
§1  Internal Reproductive Organs
1. Ovaries
2. Uterine tube
3. Uterus
4. Vagina
§2  External Reproductive Organs
1. Vulva
Appendix:   Mamma
1. Position and morphology of mammary glands
2. Structure of mammary glands
Appendix:   Perineum
1. Position and divisions of perineum
2. Muscles of anal triangle
3. Muscles of urogenital triangle
4. Pelvic diaphragm
5. Urogenital diaphragm
Chapter 10  Peritoneum  3h
§1  General description
§2  Relationship between abdominopelvic viscera and peritoneum
§3  Structures formed by peritoneum
§4  Subdivisions of peritoneal cavity
Section 3  Circulatory System
Major components and functions of circulatory system
Chapter 11 Cardiovascular System  19h
§1  General Description
1. Organization of the cardiovascular system
§2  Heart
1. Location and external features
2. Chambers and valves
3. Structures of heart
4. Conduction system of heart
5. Blood vessels of heart
6. Pericardium
7. Surface projection of heart
§3  Arteries
1. General description
2. Arteries of pulmonary circulation
3. Arteries of systemic circulation
§4  Veins
1. General description
2. Veins of pulmonary circulation
3. Veins of systemic circulation
Chapter 12 Lymphatic System 6h
§1  General Description
1. Composition of lymphatic system
2. Functions of lymphatic system
§2  Lymphatic Drainage of Head and Neck
1. Lymph nodes of head and neck
2. Lymphatic drainage of head and neck
§3  Lymphatic Drainage of Upper Limb
1. Lymph nodes
2. Lymphatic drainage of upper lmb
§4  Lymphatic Drainage of Thorax
1. Lymphatic drainage of thoracic wall
2. Lymphatic drainage of breast
3. Lymphatic drainage of lungs, bronchi and trachea
4. Lymph nodes of the mediastinum
§5  Lymphatic Drainage of Lower Limb
1. Lymph nodes
2. Lymphatic vessels
§6  Lymphatic Drainage of Abdomen and Pelvis
1. Lymph nodes
2. Lymphatic drainage of abdominal wall
3. Lymphatic drainage of abdominal viscera
4. Lymphatic drainage of the pelvis
§7  Spleen
Section 4  Sensory Organs
Chapter 13  General Description 0. 5h
1. Conditions for a sensation
2. Classification of receptors
Chapter 14  Visual Organ 3.5h
§1  Eyeball
1. Shape of the eyeball
2. Coats of the eyeball
3. Contents of eyeball
4. Refractive media of eye
§2  Accessory Organs of Eye
1. Eyelids
2. Conjunctiva
3. Lacrimal apparatus
4. Extraocular muscles
5. Connective tissue in orbit
§3  Blood Vessels and Nerves of Eye
1. Arteries of eye
2. Veins of eye
3. Nerves of eye
Chapter 15  Vestibulocochlear Organ 3h
§1  External Ear
1. Auricle
2. External acoustic meatus
3. Tympanic membrane
§2  Middle Ear
1. Tympanic cavity
2. Auditory tube
3. Mastoid antrum and mastoid cells
§3  Internal Ear
1. Bony labyrinth
2. Membranous labyrinth
3. Internal acoustic meatus
§4  Conduction of sound waves
Section 5  Nervous System
Chapter 16  General Introduction  1h
§1  Main Divisions of Nervous System
1. Central nervous system
2. Peripheral nervous system
§2  Components of Nervous System
1. Neurons
2. Neuroglia
§3  Terms Used in Nervous System
§4  Active ways of Nervous System
Chapter 17  Central Nervous System 31h
§1  Spinal Cord
1. Location and external features of spinal cord
2. Segments of spinal cord
3. Internal structure
4. Tracts of spinal cord
5. Main functions of spinal cord
6. Conduction pathway
7. Reflexes
8. Clinical consideration
§2 Brain
1. Brain Stem
2. Cerebellum
3. Diencephalon
4. Telencephalon
Chapter 18  Peripheral Nervous System 26h
§1  Spinal Nerves
1. Components, parts, and distribution of spinal nerves
2. Ramification of spinal nerves
3. Cervical plexus
4. Brachial plexus
5. Anterior branches of thoracic nerves
6. Lumber plexus
7. Sacral plexus
§2  Cranial Nerves
1. Cranial nerve I: olfactory nerve
2. Cranial nerve II: optic nerve
3. Cranial nerve III: oculomotor nerve
4. Cranial nerve IV: trochlear nerve
Cranial nerve V: trigeminal nerve 
Cranial nerve VI: abducent nerve
Cranial nerve VII: facial nerve
Cranial nerve VIII: vestibulocochlear nerve
Cranial nerve IX: glossopharyngeal nerve
Cranial nerve X: vagus nerve
Cranial nerve XI: accessory nerve
Cranial nerve XII: hypoglossal nerve
§3  Autonomic Nervous System
1. Efferent components of ANS
2. Afferent components of ANS
3. Referred pain
4. Effects of autonomic nerve stimulation on major effector organs
Chapter 19 Nervous Pathways  7h
§1  Sensory (ascending) Pathways
1. Somatosensory system
2. Visual pathway and pupillary light reflexs
3. Auditory (acoustic) pathway
4. Equilibrium pathway
5. Visceral sensory pathway
§2  Motor (descending) Pathways
1. Pyramidal system
2. Extrapyramidal system
§3 Chemical Pathways of Nervous System
Chapter 20  Meninges and Blood Vessels of Brain and Spinal Cord, and Cerebrospinal Fluid 7h
§1   Meninges of Brain and Spinal Cord
1. Meninges of brain
2. Meninges of spinal cord
§2  Blood Vessels of Brain and Spinal Cord
1. Arterial supply of brain
2. Venous drainage of brain
3. Blood supply of spinal cord
§3  Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid
§4  Blood-Brain Barrier
Section 6  Endocrine System
Chapter 21 Endocrine System 0h


III. Teaching Schedule:


Week

Chapters

Course Contents

Lecture

Practice

1


Introduction

1h

0h

Chapter1

Osteology (General DescriptionAxial Skeleton)

5h

7h

2

Chapter 1

Osteology (Appendicular   Skeleton)

3h

3h

Chapter 2

Arthrology

3h

4h

3

Chapter 3

Myology

6h

7h

4

Chapter 4

General Description of Splanchnology

1h

0h

Chapter 5

Alimentary System

5h

7h

5

Chapter 6

Respiratory System

3h

3h

Chapter 7

Urinary System

1.5h

2h

Chapter 8

Male Reproductive System

1.5h

2h

6

Chapter 9

Female Reproductive System

2h

2h

Chapter 10

Peritoneum

1h

2h

Chapter 11

Cardiovascular System (Major Components and Functions   of Circulatory System, Organization of the Cardiovascular System , Heart)

3h

3h

7

Chapter 11

Cardiovascular System (Arteries, Veins)

6h

7h

8

Chapter 12

Lymphatic System

3h

3h

Chapter 13

General Description of Sensory organs

0.5h

0h

Chapter 14

Visual Organ

1.5h

2h

Chapter 15

Vestibulocochlear Organ

1h

2h

9

Chapter 16

General Introduction of   Nervous System

1h

0h

Chapter 17

Central Nervous System   (Spinal Cord, External Features of Brainstem)

5h

7h

10

Chapter 17

Central Nervous System   (Internal Structure of Brainstem, Cerebellum and Diencephalon)

6h

7h

11

Chapter 17

Central Nervous System (Telencephalon)

3h

3h

Chapter 20

Meninges and Blood Vessels   of Brain and Spinal Cord, and Cerebrospinal Fluid

3h

4h

12

Chapter 18

Peripheral Nervous   System (Spinal Nerves, Olfactory Nerve, Optic Nerve, OculomotorNerve, Trochlear Nerve)

6h

7h

13

Chapter 18

Peripheral Nervous System   (Trigeminal Nerve, Abducent Nerve, FacialNerve,   Vestibulocochlear Nerve, Glossopharyngeal Nerve, Vagus Nerve, Accessory Nerve,   Hypoglossal nerve, Autonomic Nervous System)

6h

7h

14

Chapter 19

Nervous Pathways

3h

4h


Note:

 Classes begin in the second semester of the first school year.

 Theoretical classes are given in form of large-class and they will be held in the classrooms.

 Practical classes are carried out in the anatomy laboratories. The students will learn the gross structures of the human body by observation of the anatomic specimens and models under the guidance of teachers, and observation and touch of the living body of themselves. 56 medical students are assigned to each set of specimens and models.

 Keep the lab clean and the specimens must remain wrapped in moist shrouds when not being dissected to prevent dehydration. No specimens are to leave the laboratory and no photographing is permitted.

One final lecture exam consists of multiple choice, fill-in blanks, terms explanation and constructed response questions (60 points) and at least 10 practical exams (4 points each) will be given for evaluation of the students’ performance.